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  • General pediatric population: 1 493 participants
  • Genotyping: 1 391 participants
  • Imaging Data: 1 239 participants
  • Cognition Data: 1 453 participants
  • Age: between 3 and 20
  • Sequencing: Illumina Infinium Human 660W-Quad : BeadChip

Details on the PhenX toolkit are available here. Use the "PHX_" prefix in the PING ontology.

1 239 participants: 645 males and 594 females

Specifically, a standard PING scan session included: 1) a 3D T1-weighted inversion prepared RF-spoiled gradient echo scan using prospective motion correction (PROMO), for cortical and subcortical segmentation; 2) a 3D T2-weighted variable flip angle fast spin echo scan, also using PROMO, for detection and quantification of white matter lesions and segmentation of CSF; 3) a high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) scan, with integrated B0 distortion correction (DISCO), for segmentation of white matter tracts and measurement of diffusion parameters; and 4) a resting state blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI scan, with integrated distortion correction. Pulse sequence parameters used across (3T) scanner manufacturers (GE, Siemens, and Phillips) and models were optimized for equivalence in contrast properties and consistency in image-derived quantitative measures.

Gradient nonlinearity correction (3D GradWarp): A correction software developed in the UCSD MultiModal Imaging Laboratory (MMIL)

Motion correction (PROMO)

EPI B0 distortion correction (DISCO): Our group has developed a fast, robust, and accurate procedure for removins the severe spatial distortions and intensity variations due to susceptibility-induced B0 field inhomogeneity.

fMRI: Resting State: Participants fixate on a cross for 5min.

Collected in saliva.

Illumina Human660W-Quad BeadChip: over 550 000 genetics markers (SNPs and other variants)

Covers autosomes, X and Y chromosomes, as well as mtDNA.

1 391 participants: 727 males and 679 females

NDAR-PING collection details.

Datas are available on our CEDAR repository. For support contact Martineau Jean-Louis -

The PING Data Resource is the product of a multi-site project. The repository contains aggregated data collected at 10 sites in the United States. The Data Resource includes neurodevelopmental histories, information about developing mental and emotional functions, multimodal brain imaging data, and genotypes for well over 1000 children and adolescents between the ages of 3 and 20. The goal of PING was to address the imbalance in existing imaging genomics data resources between those containing data collected from adult and elderly participants and the very limited data available from pediatric and adolescent participants.

Exclusion criteria included:a) neurological disorders; b) history of head trauma; c) preterm birth (less than 36 weeks); d) diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or mental retardation; e) pregnancy; and f) daily illicit drug use by the mother for more than one trimester. Individuals with contraindications for MRI (such as dental braces, metallic or electronic implants, or claustrophobia) were also excluded from participating. Individuals with identified or suspected learning disability or ADHD were not excluded since these syndromes are fairly common in pediatric populations.

Jernigan T. and al. The Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition, and Genetics (PING) Data Repository